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Introduction

PHACS, Public Health in Arkansas Communities Search, is a project built from collaboration between the Arkansas Center for Health Disparities and the Arkansas Center for Clinical and Translational Research. The PHACS County Profile Report presents the most recent information for each health indicator that has been collected by our group. The data is collected from several reliable data sources and includes over 100 variables that can indicate the health of a county. In this report, the results are grouped by the following categories:

Each county has been ranked for every health indicator as it compares to other counties in the state. We use a quintile ranking to group the counties into five equal groups according to the number of occurrences for each health indicator. All data is ranked from 1 to 5 with a value of 5 representing counties with the highest occurrence/amount for that indicator and 1 being the least.

The Arkansas state value for each indicator is also reported if the information is available. The information presented in this report is also available on our website, www.uams.edu/phacs. The county profile report is updated as new information becomes available from each data source. This may result in several updates each year. Check our latest news and updates on the website for changes and updates to the PHACS county profile reports.

*Some health indicators such as Number of Hospitals only have 3 groupings instead of 5.


Demographics

“Demographic trends indicate that the number of Americans who are vulnerable to suffering the effects of heath care disparities will rise over the next half century. Current data show that some ethnic minorities, as well as low-income families of whatever race or ethnicity, tend to be in poorer health than other Americans. … Additionally, some racial and ethnic minorities are growing at a much more rapid pace than the majority white population. Nearly 1 in 2 Americans will be a member of a racial or ethnic minority-i.e., black, Hispanic, Asian, or American Indian-by the year 2050. Clearly, these trends pose a daunting challenge for policymakers and the health care system.” Source: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, 2003. National Healthcare Disparities Report


Social Environment

“Social environment includes interactions with family, friends, co-workers, and others in the community. It also encompasses social institutions, such as law enforcement, the workplace, places of worship, and schools. Housing, public transportation, and the pres-ence or absence of violence in the community are among other components of the social environment. The social environment has a profound effect on individual health, as well as on the health of the larger community, and is unique because of cultural customs; language; and personal, religious, or spiritual beliefs. At the same time, individuals and their behaviors contribute to the quality of the social environment.” Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Healthy People 2010


Access to Healthcare

“The health of individuals and communities also depends greatly on access to quality health care. Expanding access to quality health care is important to eliminate health disparities and to increase the quality and years of healthy life for all people living in the United States. Health care in the broadest sense not only includes services received through health care providers but also health information and services received through other venues in the community.” Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Healthy People 2010


Preventive Care and Behaviors

“There is ample evidence to show that increasing use of proven preventive services will result in fewer people suffering from diseases that could have been prevented or treated with less pain at early stages. Also, preventive services are often more cost effective-meaning they provide better value for the dollar-than waiting to treat diseases, and some preventive services even save more money than they cost. Underuse of effective preventive care is a wasted opportunity. The U.S. health care system suffers a quality deficit in part because too many patients do not get the effective preventive care they need when they need it.” Source: Partnership for Prevention, 2007. Preventive Care: A National Report on Use, Disparities, and Health Benefits


Risk Behaviors

“Behaviors are individual responses or reactions to internal stimuli and external conditions. Behaviors can have a reciprocal relation-ship to biology; in other words, each can react to the other. For ex-ample, smoking (behavior) can alter the cells in the lung and result in shortness of breath, emphysema, or cancer (biology) that then may lead an individual to stop smoking (behavior). Similarly, a family history that includes heart disease (biology) may motivate an individual to develop good eating habits, avoid tobacco, and maintain an active lifestyle (behaviors), which may prevent his or her own development of heart disease (biology).” Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Healthy People 2010 /p>


Health Outcomes

“The leading causes of death in the United States generally result from a mix of behaviors; injury, violence, and other factors in the environment; and the unavailability or inaccessibility of quality health services. Understanding and monitoring behaviors, environ-mental factors, and community health systems may prove more useful to monitoring the Nation’s true health, and in driving health improvement activities, than the death rates that reflect the cumulative impact of these factors.” Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Healthy People 2010


* Health Ranking compared to other counties. This is a result of quintile ranking for all 75 counties in Arkansas. The rankings are assigned by placing the counties into five equal groups by the occurrence of the health indicator.

Category 5 - Highest, represents highest occurrence of the indicator/outcome

Category 4 - Higher, represents counties between the highest and mid-range occurrence of the indicator/outcome

Category 3 - Middle, represents counties within the middle range occurrence of the indicator/outcome

Category 2- Lower, represents counties between mid-range and lowest occurrence of the indicator/outcome

Category 1 - Lowest, represents counties with the lowest occurrence of the indicator/outcome


Data Sources

Arkansas Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Survey, http://brfss.arkansas.gov/county_data.html

Arkansas Cancer Registry: http://cancer-rates.info/ar/index.php

Arkansas Center for Health Improvement, http://www.achi.net/BMIReports.asp

Arkansas Department of Health: http://www.healthyarkansas.com/data/data.html

Arkansas Department of Health, Cause of Death: http://170.94.15.100/scripts/broker.exe?_service=default&_program=arcode.ICD10_welcome_live.sas&_debug=

Arkansas Department of Health, Workforce Report: http://www.healthy.arkansas.gov/programsServices/healthStatistics/Documents/HealthProfessionals/Manpower_Report2012.pdf

Arkansas Department of Human Services, Annual Statistical Report, http://www.arkansas.gov/dhs/NewDHS/DHSwork.html#Reports

Arkansas Prevention Needs Assessment Survey: arkansas.pridesurvers.com

Arkansas State Police: http://www.asp.state.ar.us/hso/hso_index.html

Bureau of Economic Advancement: http://www.bea.gov

Bureau of Labor Statistics: http://www.bls.gov/lau/tables.htm

Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services: http://cms.gov/research-statistics-data-and-systems/statistics-trends-and-reports/medicareenrpts/index.html?redirect=/medicareenrpts/

County Health Rankings: http://www.countyhealthrankings.org/

FBI :http://www.fbi.gov/ucr/ucr.htm

US Bureau of Economic Analysis - http://www.bea.gov

US Census Bureau: https://www.census.gov/quickfacts/fact/table/US/PST045216

http://censtats.census.gov/

http://www.census.gov/did/www/sahie/data/interactive/#view=data&utilBtn=&yLB=0&stLB=4&aLB=4&sLB=0&iLB=0&rLB=0&countyCBSelected=true&insuredRBG=pu_&multiYearSelec ted=false&multiYearAlertFlag=false


Acknowledgements

Martha Phillips, PhD, MPH, MBA
Nikiya M. Simpson, MBA
B. Elizabeth Taylor
Corlin Burks

Public Health in Arkansas Communities Search
c/o Epidemiology Department
University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences
4801 West Markham Street Mail Slot 820
Little Rock, AR 72205
www.uams.edu/phacs
phacs@uams.edu


This project is supported by
Arkansas Center for Health Disparities, the Arkansas Minority Health Commission, the Arkansas Prevention Research Center, and the Arkansas Minority Health Commission.