POLICY HANDBOOK

 DIAGNOSTIC MEDICAL SONOGRAPHY

 

 

University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences

 

College of Health Related Professions

Arkansas Health Education Centers, NW & SW

Department of Imaging and Radiation Sciences

Division of Diagnostic Medical Sonography

 

Diagnostic Medical Sonography Program

Little Rock, Arkansas

Class 2005 - 2007

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

PROGRAM

 

Mission Statement.................................................................................................... 4

Responsibilities......................................................................................................... 4

 

STUDENTS

 

I.          Attendance     .......................................................................................................... 7

II.        Absenteeism    .......................................................................................................... 7

III.       Tardiness         .......................................................................................................... 8

IV.       Class and Laboratory Responsibilities:

A.        Conduct........................................................................................................ 8

B.        Grades………………………...................................................................... 9

C.        Academic Probation..................................................................................... 9

D.        Academic Withdrawal ................................................................................ 10

E.         Graduation................................................................................................... 10

F.         Withholding of Grades and Transcripts....................................................... 11

V.        Clinical Responsibilities:

A.        Clinical Directors and Coordinators ............................................................ 11

B.        Clinical Supervisors/Associates ................................................................... 11

C.        Dress and Appearance.................................................................................. 12

D.        Conduct........................................................................................................ 14

E.         Safety Procedures........................................................................................ 16

F.         Student Reporting of Exposure to or

                        Contraction of Communicable Diseases...................................................... 16

G.        Clinical Infection Control Procedures.......................................................... 18

H.        Clinical Probation......................................................................................... 18

VI.       Professional Responsibilities.................................................................................... 19

VII.     Advising………....................................................................................................... 19

VIII.    Breaks and Holidays................................................................................................ 20

IX.       Policy on Pregnancy................................................................................................. 20

X.        Student Awards and Honors................................................................................... 20

XI.       Infractions of Departmental Policy and Procedure.................................................. 20

XII.     Guidelines for  Professionalism................................................................................ 22

 

Appendix  I.    UAMS Administrative Guide Number 11.4.10

 

      Appendix  II.  Standards and Guidelines for an Accredited Educational Program for the Diagnostic Medical Sonographer

 

Appendix  III. Scope of Practice for the Diagnostic Ultrasound Professional

 

Appendix  IV. Code of Ethics for the Profession of Diagnostic Medical Ultrasound

 

Appendix  V.  Society of Diagnostic Medical Sonographers (SDMS)

 

 

 

DIAGNOSTIC MEDICAL SONOGRAPHY PROGRAM

 

MISSION STATEMENT

 

RESPONSIBILITIES

 

MISSION STATEMENT

 

The mission of the Department of Imaging and Radiation Sciences, Division of Diagnostic Medical Sonography , parallels and complements that of UAMS and the College of Health Related Professions.  That mission is to provide progressive, quality education to its students through review, development, and applied research.  In turn, the Department provides the community and the state with graduates prepared to join health care services in advancing levels of responsibility.  As a dynamic program, the Department promotes continued and advanced education for its faculty and the professional community.

 

CONTINUING RESPONSIBILITIES

 

While new goals may be established, the DMS Program maintains active efforts toward the maintenance of established responsibilities.  Its ongoing responsibilities are to:

 

1.   Provide an equal opportunity for admission to all qualified applicants regardless of race,

creed, color, or sex.  Applicants must be at least eighteen years of age.  Accommodation for the acceptance of the handicapped is available.

 

2.   Provide an educationally sound environment to all students without discrimination.

 

3.   Provide equal opportunities in classroom, laboratory, and clinical experiences to all students.

 

4.   Continually review and upgrade the curriculum.

 

5.   Accommodate new technologies and professional responsibilities, as required, through expansion of the curriculum.

 

6.   Promote the competency of graduates as employable, capable, and professional medical

      sonographers.

 

7.   Integrate the faculty and students of the DMS Program among the three campuses of UAMS, AHEC-Southwest, and AHEC-Northwest.

 

8.   Maintain responsibility and accountability to the College and the University.

 

9.   Maintain responsibility and accountability to educational and professional accrediting

      agencies.

 

10. Maintain responsibility and accountability to professional and health consumer populations.

 

11. Provide opportunities for the professional development and evaluation of all faculty.

   

12. Encourage faculty toward applied research in the sonographic sciences.

 

13. Promote and sponsor professional continuing education opportunities throughout the state.

 

14. Participate in UAMS in-service and resident education programs.

 

DIAGNOSTIC MEDICAL SONOGRAPHY

STUDENTS

 

RESPONSIBILITIES

 

AND

 

RIGHTS

 

I.          ATTENDANCE

 

The Department's policy on attendance is as follows:

 

The student is expected to:

 

1.      Attend all classes, laboratories, and clinical sessions.

2.      Maintain the schedule for non-classroom, Web-based courses and submit assignments in a timely manner.

3.      Be in the scheduled area (class, lab, or clinic) at the specified time.

4.      Remain in the scheduled area (class, lab, or clinic) for the specified

length of time.

 

II.        ABSENTEEISM

           

Students are expected to participate in all scheduled didactic (classroom and Web-Based) and clinical education experiences.  Absenteeism is defined as not being present for an assigned educational activity, or not submitting Web-Based assignments on time.  Students should schedule all appointments, medical and other, during times when they are not participating in didactic or clinical education sessions.

 

Students must notify the DMS Program Office if they are unable to attend class.  In addition, students must notify their Clinical Site Instructor of Record and the DMS Program Office if they’re unable to attend clinic.

 

            If a student is not present in clinic at the appropriate times, and does not notify both the Clinical Site Instructor of Record and the DMS Program office PRIOR TO the program faculty’s discovery of the absence, an automatic five (5) points will be deducted from the final Clinical Practicum grade for each occurrence. 

 

The student may have a total of two Personal Days Off per semester for personal business, personal illness, or illness within the immediate family.  Personal Days Off may be used in half-day or whole-day increments and, with the Program Director’s approval, can be carried forward to the next semester. However, students may not take these days off in advance, i.e. taking time off in the Fall by using the Spring semester’s days off. 

 

Students absent more than two days in a row due to personal illness must submit a written physician’s certification that the student is fit to resume clinical activities. The Program Director reserves the right to request a physician certification at any time.

 

Students who miss five or more days per semester will be counseled by the Program Director.

 

Absences in excess of two days per semester will be made up during the following times:

 

1.  Time missed from August through December will be made up during the Christmas break.

 

2.  Time missed from January through March will be made up during the Spring break.

 

3.  Time missed from March through July will be made up during the Summer break.

 

4.  During the Senior year, time missed after the Spring break will be made up during the Summer break and will result in the student remaining in the program until such time is made up.

 

5.  Students must schedule make-up days with the DMS faculty.  Failure to attend a scheduled make-up day will result in another clinical absence and that day, plus the first clinical absence day, will have to be made up.

 

6.  Failure to make up missed time will result in an Incomplete (I) grade for that semester’s class or clinic.  Continued failure to make up the time will result in an F for the final grade.

 

 

III.       TARDINESS

 

Students are expected to arrive at their scheduled time to all classroom, laboratory, and clinical assignments.  Tardiness is defined as not being present in one’s assigned area at the assigned time.

 

IV.       STUDENT RESPONSIBILITIES IN THE CLASSROOM AND LABORATORY

 

            A.        CONDUCT

 

1.         Come adequately prepared for class.

2.         Attend all classes and laboratories as scheduled, unless previous arrangements have been made with the Instructor or Program Director.

3.         Request instructor/student conferences when needed.

4.         Maintain an unbiased, open point of view during class sessions.

5.         Request and take make-up examinations (if permitted by the Instructor) within the specified period of time for the given course.

6.         Act as a favorable role model for your health profession at all times.

7.         Assume responsibility for the condition of the instructional area during, and at the completion of, a class or laboratory session.

8.         Refrain from smoking anywhere on the UAMS campus; and refrain from eating or drinking in the classroom or in such designated areas during class or laboratory sessions.

9.         Maintain and arrange class materials in a form which will be usable in the future as a professional reference.

10        Respect furniture and equipment by careful handling and use.  Do not mark on desks.

11.       Cheating in any form is not tolerated.  Any student found exhibiting either of the following types of behavior during, or in the preparation of, any quiz, project, report, test, or final examination will receive a score of zero (0) for that assignment.  The student conduct violation will be referred for administrative review:

a.         Cheating, defined as the act of obtaining or providing information, data, or clinical documentation improperly or by dishonest or deceitful means; and,

b.         Plagiarism, defined as copying or imitating the language, ideas, or thoughts of another author and presenting them as one’s original work; the copying of a theme or section from a book or journal without giving credit in a footnote; or copying from the manuscript of another person.

12.       Develop an appreciation for high personal standards in conduct and achievements.

13.       Refrain from using abusive, provocative, or profane language and/or gestures.

14.       Avoid creating, or being party to, a disturbance or physical violence.

15.       Observe the principle of mutual respect in their contacts with patients, visitors, employees, and in their working relationship with faculty and other students.

 

B.        GRADES

 

All credit courses are required. Receiving a grade of “D” or “F” in a course may result in an additional year's work or dismissal from the program.

 

The student's grades are kept by each program and are available for the student to inspect.  Official transcripts must be requested from the CHRP Registrar.

 

For further information regarding grades and academic standing, see the section on Academic Regulations in the College Catalog.

 

C.        ACADEMIC PROBATION

 

The department may initiate academic probation of the student:

 

1.         Whose performance places others in physical or emotional jeopardy; or

 

2.         Who fails to meet legal standards, ethical standards, or standards of practice for allied health students; or

 

3.         Who misses three or more days per semester.

 


 

D.        ACADEMIC WITHDRAWAL

 

The Department may initiate withdrawal of the student:

 

1.         Who receives a course grade of less than a “C” in a course of the Professional Curriculum; or

 

2.         Whose repeated performance places others in physical or emotional jeopardy; or

 

3.         Who repeatedly fails to meet legal standards, ethical standards, or standards of practice for student sonographers; or

 

4.         Who has accumulated five absences from educational assignments; or

 

5.         Who commits four or more minor infractions or two or more major infractions of departmental policy or procedure.

 

Physical jeopardy is defined as any action or inaction which directly threatens the physical safety or well-being of another person.  Emotional jeopardy is defined as any action or inaction which directly threatens the emotional or mental well being of another person.

 

E.        GRADUATION

 

The specific Departmental requirements for graduation are:

 

1.         A grade of “C” or higher in each course of the Professional Curriculum and an overall GPA of 2.00 or higher.

 

2.  Satisfactory completion of all clinical requirements.

 

No student will graduate until he/she has satisfied all program and college requirements.  See the College Catalog for further information.

 

The University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, College of Health Related

Professions reserves the right to dismiss a student at any time on grounds the

University and College judge to be appropriate.  Each student, by their own admission to the College, recognizes this right of the University and the College.

 

The continuance of any student on the roster of the College, the receipt of academic credit, graduation, and the granting of a degree rests solely within the powers of the University and the College.

 

F.         WITHHOLDING OF GRADES AND TRANSCRIPTS

 

The Registrar is authorized to withhold grades and transcripts and refuse registration to any student or former student who fails to return athletic, library, or other University property entrusted to his or her care.  This policy also applies to those who fail to comply with the rules governing the audit of student organization accounts, or who has failed to pay any fees, tuition, room and board charges, fines, or other charges assessed against them by a University or AHEC official, any clinical education center, or by the campus judicial system.

 

V.        STUDENT RESPONSIBILITIES IN THE CLINICAL AREA

 

The clinical education phase of the program is designed to enhance student learning.  This is achieved through observation, assistance, practice, and evaluation of sonographic and patient care principles learned in the classroom and lab.  The curriculum offers a wide range of learning experiences and patient contacts by providing clinical rotations through many different healthcare institutions.  Clinical Education Centers, contact persons, and phone numbers may change; the most current listings will usually be on the UAMS-DMS web pages: http://www.uams.edu/chrp/dms/ClinicalRecords/clinrecords.asp

 

PROGRAM  DIRECTOR

Terry J. DuBose............................................................................................. 686-6510

 

INSTRUCTOR/CLINICAL COORDINATOR

Anthony L. Baker.......................................................................................... 686-6510

 

 

INSTRUCTORs/ASSISTANT CLINICAL COORDINATORs

Barton David Rands               AHEC-SW..................................................... 870-779-6009

Lori Kimbrow                         AHEC-NW.................................................... 479-684-5105 x3

 

A.   LOCAL CLINICAL SITE SUPERVISORS

 

UAMS MEDICAL CENTER

 

UAMS Diagnostic Sonography - Mrs. Lynette Place................................... 686-5763

UAMS Freeway Medical Center – Staff Sonographer................................. 296-1745 ext. 3212

UAMS Community Women's Clinic – Staff Sonographer............................ 280-3383

 

V. A. HOSPITAL

Ms. Terri Butler.............................................................................................. 257-1000 ext. 76651

 

 ARKANSAS CHILDREN'S HOSPITAL

Mr. David Kinder.......................................................................................... 364-1177

 

ST.  VINCENT’S INFIRMARY MEDICAL CENTER

Ms. Charlotte Doshier.................................................................................... 552-2972

 

ST.  VINCENT’S INFIRMARY MEDICAL CENTER, SHERWOOD

Ms. April Crocker………………………………………………….............. 552-7183

 

 

BAPTIST HEALTH MEDICAL CENTER

Ms. Torri Brady............................................................................................. 202-1303

 

BAPTIST HEALTH MEDICAL CENTER, NORTH LITTLE ROCK

Ms. Melissa England………………………………………………….......... 202-3499

 

REBSAMEN REGIONAL MEDICAL CENTER

Mr. David Johnson........................................................................................ 985-7352

 

CONWAY REGIONAL MEDICAL CENTER

Ms. Rhonda Hambuchen…………………………………………………... (501) 450-2186

 

B.        DRESS AND APPEARANCE

 

The wearing of uniforms is required in the clinical area.  Approved uniforms consist of the following:

 

Male:           1.     Approved Caribbean Blue scrub pants

                    2.     Approved Caribbean Blue scrub top

                    3.     White hospital shoes (closed toe and heel) and white socks

 

Female:       1.     Approved Caribbean Blue scrub pants and top or Caribbean Blue scrub dress

                    2.     White hosiery with dresses, white hosiery or plain white socks with scrub pants

                    3.     White hospital shoes (closed toe and heel)

 

All Students:   The following items are considered part of the uniform and, as such,

must be on your person daily:

 

1.         UAMS ID badge

2.         Watch

3.         Clinical records book

 

The following policies concerning clinical appearance will be in effect at all clinical sites unless otherwise specified:

 

1.         Uniform tops, pants, and dresses will be neat and clean at all times.  All will be starched or finished with spray starch.  The pants will have front and back vertical creases.  Sleeves will be creased.  The pant length will cover the top of the shoes.  Uniforms will remain in good repair.  No rips, tears or holes will be tolerated.

 

            Uniforms must not be binding or constricting, but allow for ease of movement while bending or reaching.  Dresses must be of a length appropriate for bending or reaching over the head.

 

            Uniforms must be properly buttoned/zipped to insure a neat, modest appearance. Conventional undergarments are required.

 

2.         A white lab coat may be worn as part of the uniform (except at the Arkansas Children’s Hospital).  For ease in hand washing, it is strongly recommended that the lab coat should have 3/4 length sleeves (hemmed, not rolled) or ribbed-cuff sleeves.  Lab coats will be kept clean, white, stain-free, and neatly starched and pressed.

 

3.         Hospital shoes with closed toe and heel will be solid white and should be polished daily.  Athletic shoes are acceptable, but must also be solid white, all leather, low-cut, and polished daily.  Regardless of style, footwear must be kept in good repair.  Shoestrings will be solid white and clean at all times.

 

4.         White hosiery or plain white socks must be worn when in uniform. Socks will be long enough so that skin is not visible while seated. Socks should form a smooth line and not be folded or bunched around the ankles.

 

5.         No rings may be worn on the hand during the performance of sonographic procedures or during the provision of patient care services, for reasons of patient safety.  Other jewelry is strongly discouraged.  Jewelry permitted during patient care includes:

 

- earrings, not to extend past the earlobe

- one necklace, worn close to neck

 

6.         Fingernails must be kept clean and neatly trimmed.  To avoid patient injury, fingernails may not extend more than 1/2 centimeter beyond the fingertips.  The use of clear nail polish is permitted.

           

7.         The hairstyle chosen must be neat and well groomed.  Unless hair is cut short enough to remain close to the head and off the collar, it must be pulled away from the face and secured in such a manner that no strands fall downward onto the shoulders or into the face.  Hair will be secured with plain black, brown, Caribbean Blue, or white clasps or elastic bands.  Bows or ribbons are not acceptable.

 

8.         Make-up and cologne, if worn, will be applied sparingly.

 

9.         Proper  personal hygiene (breath and body) should be practiced at all times.

 

10.       Official identification badges will be worn on the uniform such that the student’s identity is readily visible to the patient.

 

HOSPITAL GOWNS

 

The wearing of hospital gowns for any purpose other than the following is not permitted:

 

Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU)

            Isolation

            Morgue

Hospital/clinical - Isolation

SCRUB SUITS

 

Scrub suits, other than the uniform, will be worn only when required by the individual rotation or department.

 

Scrub suits of any kind are not for personal use and may not be worn outside the assigned area of use.

           

C.        CONDUCT

 

The student should demonstrate respect, concern, and courtesy to all patients and their families, all other health professionals, and hospital staff.  This should be done in a professional and diplomatic manner.

 

1.           The student will be in the assigned clinical area, on time, as scheduled, from
8:00AM to 4:30PM, unless otherwise assigned.

 

2.           Upon arrival in and departure from the clinical area, the student will sign the attendance record, if required.

 

3.           The student will not leave the clinical area without the knowledge of the supervising sonographer or the clinical supervisor and/or faculty. For absences of 15 minutes or less the student should notify their sonographer or clinical supervisor.  For absences of more than 15 minutes, the student will get approval from their supervising sonographer and the faculty assigned to their site.  Once approval has been given, the student will sign out on the attendance record and back in upon return, if required.  Attendance and punctuality will be evaluated by the clinical instructors on the Student Evaluation form.

 

4.           Eating or drinking is not permitted in the front offices, hallways, or imaging rooms.

 

5.           During periods of inactivity, the reading of textbooks and professional literature is encouraged within the student’s assigned imaging room or as specified.  Novels or crafts are not permissible in the clinical area.

 

6.           Students should conduct themselves in a professional manner at all times.

 

7.           The student is not to use phones in the clinical area for personal use.  Cell phones will be turned off during class or clinicals.  In addition, cell phones will not be used in the clinical or classroom setting except for valid emergencies. 

 

8.           At no time, for any reason, will a student leave a patient on a stretcher unattended.

 

9.           Student lunch breaks will be concurrent with the lunch break of the student’s assigned staff sonographer.

 

10.         No gum chewing will be allowed while in the clinical area.

11.         Students are not to return to the clinical area at night or on weekends, unless for specific pre-approved assignments.

 

12.         All accidents occurring on campus, whether involving a patient and/or student, shall be reported within one hour of the incident.   Appropriate medical treatment shall be obtained and the proper accident forms filled out completely.

 

13.         Smoking is prohibited in all buildings.

 

14.         Gratuities may not be accepted from patients.

 

15.         The use of intoxicating drugs or beverages is prohibited in the clinical assignment areas and in other portions of the University as posted.

 

16.         The use of profanity or disrespectful actions is not permitted in the clinical and classroom areas.

 

            D.        SAFETY PROCEDURES

 

1.      Immobilizing procedures or devices are to be used whenever possible for patients who cannot cooperate or when the examination requires strict motion control.  Hospital personnel, guests, or family may be called on to assist when other restraints are not possible.

 

2.      Clean and neat floors and work benches are not only to be expected in a hospital setting, it is the responsibility of the sonographer in charge of a room to ensure that equipment is clean and in good working condition.  Any soiling or unsafe condition, which cannot be immediately corrected, must be reported to the Senior Sonographer on duty.

 

3.      Transducers must be cleaned and dried at the end of each examination.

 

4.      The quality of examinations and the safety of personnel and patients are of the highest priority; it is the personal responsibility of each member of the staff to identify, notify, and assist in correcting deficiencies as they occur.

 

5.      All patients must be properly identified by checking an armband or by having the patient repeat his or her name and other identifiable data before initiating a sonographic procedure.

 

6.      All students must maintain current cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) certification during enrollment in the Professional Curriculum.

 

7.      Proper patient privacy and modesty must be observed at all times.  Doors to examination rooms must be closed during all sonographic procedures.

 

E.        STUDENT REPORTING OF EXPOSURE TO, OR CONTRACTION OF, COMMUNICABLE DISEASE:

 

Exposure to, or contraction of, infectious diseases must be reported immediately.  The student will assume the responsibility of disclosure to minimize the risk of contagion to patients, personnel, and others.  Confidentiality will be preserved within the required investigative, treatment, and notification limits of the disease process.

 

1.  Notify Student/Employee Health by completing an Incident and Accident Report form describing the exposure to, or contraction of, a communicable disease.

 

2.  Treatment or prophylaxis will be initiated based upon the degree of exposure or contact.

 

3.  Casual exposure (minimal patient contact) to the following diseases will not require treatment:

 

Chickenpox                                Pneumonia

Diarrheal Disease                       Poliomyelitis

Hepatitis A or B                         Rabies

Gonorrhea                                  Staphylococcal disease

Herpes Simplex                          Streptococcal disease

Influenza                                    Syphilis

Leprosy                                      Tetanus

Measles                                      Tuberculosis

Meningitis                                  Typhoid fever

Mumps                                       Whooping cough

 

Casual exposure to the following diseases will require management as indicated:

 

Diphtheria                                  Rubella

 

4.   Intimate exposure (prolonged physical contact or contact with blood or body fluids) will require a report to Student/Employee Health or the UAMS Emergency Department within one (1) hour of the incident.  Examples of such exposure include:

 

a.  needle sticks with used needles

b.  aspiration of blood or blood products into the mouth

c.  mouth-to-mouth resuscitation

d.  splashing of body fluids into the conjunctiva or mouth

e.  exposure to cerebrospinal fluid


 

 

5.   Intimate exposure to the following diseases will require management as indicated:

 

Hepatitis A or B                         AIDS or HIV infection

Rabies                                        Meningitis (Meningococcal)

Syphilis                                      Tuberculosis

 

 

F.         CLINICAL INFECTION CONTROL PROCEDURES

 

Clinical infection control procedures are printed and are available at each clinical location.  Since some variation exists from site to site it is strongly recommended that the student review the procedures applicable to a given area in order to maintain department policies.

 

            G.        CLINICAL PROBATION

 

As the clinical education component is competency based and somewhat self-directive, students should be aware of their strengths and weaknesses.  Identified weak areas may be improved by requesting assistance from any faculty member.  However, if improvement does not occur, a formal mechanism must exist for this purpose.  A student may be placed on Clinical Probation if there is found to be:

 

1.         repeated neglect or disregard of the Clinical Conduct policy; or

2.         skill levels persistently below those of the minimum requirement, (refer to the appropriate Clinical Education syllabus); or

3.         an absence of  more than the two Personal Days Off allowed per semester.

 

If a student does not achieve satisfactory evaluation for competency in any one examination type, this indicates below minimum performance levels in any or all of the following areas:

 

1.  Sonographic scanning technique

2.  Protocol compliance

3.  Patient care

4.  Image or case evaluation

 

The student will then receive notice to schedule a counseling session with his/her Clinical Instructor.  Note: Due to the Diagnostic Medical Sonography Program’s accreditation policy, the Clinical Instructor must be appropriately credentialed (Registered).  Upon completion of the counseling session, the faculty will review the student’s record.  Recommendations will be made and the student will be informed of the recommendations within forty-eight (48) hours following the conference.  The student will be assigned remedial activities which may include, but not be limited to, any of the following:

 

1.  Sonographic scanning critique

2.  Written report of proper protocols

3.  Review of audiovisuals

4.  Modeling, simulation exercises

5.  One-on-one clinical instruction

 

Upon satisfactory completion of the remedial activities, the student may continue with the clinical competency program and attempt to pass the originally failed competency.  Continued unsatisfactory completion of the competency will result in a counseling session with the Program Director and placement on Clinical Probation.

 

A student placed on Clinical Probation will have two (2) opportunities to satisfactorily complete the originally failed competency.   During this Clinical Probation  period, the student’s clinical assignment schedule may be revised to limit their clinical  participation until such time that the clinical deficiency is corrected.  During the Clinical Probation period, the student may not attempt to meet other clinical curriculum procedural objectives.  Upon satisfactory completion of the Clinical Probation period, the student may continue with the clinical competency program.

 

Should the student be unsuccessful in the two attempts to pass the clinical competency during Clinical probation, a mark of “U” will be given for the semester’s Clinical Practicum course.

 

I.          PROFESSIONAL RESPONSIBILITIES

 

Because students in Diagnostic Medical Sonography are training for a professional career as health care providers, they are expected to adopt a professional attitude.  To this end the following responsibilities are expected:

 

1.  Join the local, state, and national professional organizations.

 

2.  Attend the local professional meetings and the state professional meetings, whenever possible.

 

3.  Attend professional seminars held locally.

 

4.  Devote a scheduled amount of time each month to the reading of professional literature and technological advances in Diagnostic Medical Sonography.

 

5.  Devote a scheduled amount of time each month to the reading of professional literature in other health care disciplines, i.e. nursing, medicine, etc.

 

VII.     ADVISING

 

Students should feel free to seek counseling from the department faculty.  In order to have better access to the faculty, students should request an appointment at a time that is mutually convenient.

 

 VIII.    BREAKS AND HOLIDAYS

 

            Each year students receive the following holidays and breaks:

 

September - Labor Day          

November - Veteran’s Day

Thanksgiving - 2 days

Christmas - 2 weeks               

January – Martin Luther King Day

February - Washington’s Birthday 

Spring Break - 1 week           

May - Memorial Day              

July - Independence Day

Summer Break – 2 weeks

                                               

IX.       POLICY ON PREGNANCY

 

If a student becomes pregnant while enrolled in the educational program, she must inform the Program Director or Department Chairman immediately.  Such disclosure will allow observation of proper radiation safety practices for the fetus by restricting some clinical rotations during pregnancy.  Exposure to the unborn child needs to be kept as low as practicable. Under the supervision of the Program Director, or Department Chairman, and the Radiation Safety Officer clinical rotations will be assigned to ensure that exposure to the mother will not exceed 500 mRem during the period of pregnancy. At the student's request, information about the pregnancy will be held in confidence, and will be limited to the Program Director, Department Chairman, and Radiation Safety Officer.  The student should be aware that pregnancy might delay the student's graduation date.

 

X.        STUDENT AWARDS AND HONORS

 

Each year various awards are given to graduating Seniors who meet certain criteria.  Among those awards for DMS students is the:

 

Faculty Gold Key:

Awarded for outstanding achievements in academics, professional involvement, and service to others.

 

XI.  Infractions of Departmental Policy and Procedure

 

A.        Minor Infractions

 

1.  Violation of the dress code.

2.  Leaving the clinical assignment without notifying one’s supervising sonographer or the faculty.

3.  Eating or drinking in patient care areas.

4.  Engaging in non-patient activities when patients are waiting to have their examinations performed.

5.  Using phones in the clinical areas for non-emergency matters.  Using cell phones in the classroom or clinical areas for personal conversations.

6.  Chewing gum while providing patient care services.

7.  Returning to the clinical area after hours or on weekends without prior approval.

8.  Smoking in non-designated areas.

9.  Accepting gratuities from visitors, patients, or patient family members.

10.  Using abusive, provocative, or profane language or gestures while engaged in assigned student activities.

11.  Failing to complete a critical incident report within one hour for Sharps Injuries and within twenty-four hours for all other incidents.

 

B.        Major Infractions

 

1.  Endangering the physical or emotional well-being of a patient.

2.  Endangering the physical or emotional well-being of another student, faculty member, or staff member.

3.  Falsifying a document or record.

4.  Cheating.

5.  Plagiarism.

6.  Unprofessional conduct.

7.  Use of intoxicating substances on campus or at a clinical site.

8.  Creating or being a part of a disturbance or physical violence while on campus or at a clinical site.

9.  Administering a medication without the direct supervision of a qualified, registered sonographer.

10.  Failing to report intimate exposure to a potentially contagious pathogen.

11.  Failing to report pregnancy to the Program Director or Department Chairman in a timely fashion.

12.  Performing a procedure on an individual without a physician’s expressed order.

13.  Failing to wear a personal dosimeter during a clinical assignment, if required.

14.  Failing to properly check the identification of a patient.

15.  Performing the wrong sonographic examination on a patient.

 

Clinical Probation

 

1.      First minor infraction: student receives a written notice.

2.      Second minor infraction: student receives a written notice and is placed on Clinical Probation.

3.      Third minor infraction:  student receives a written notice and remains on Clinical Probation.

4.      Fourth minor infraction:  student receives a written notice and is administratively withdrawn from the program.

5.      First major infraction:  student receives a written notice and is placed on Clinical Probation.

6.      Second major infraction:  student receives a written notice and is administratively withdrawn from the program.

 

A student placed on Clinical Probation will remain on Clinical Probation for the duration of one semester or its equivalent.  If the student has committed no minor or major infractions during the period of Clinical Probation, the student will be removed from Clinical Probation. 

 

Clinical Suspension

 

A student who commits a major infraction of departmental policy and procedure of such magnitude that causes an immediate physical injury or results in placing another individual in immediate emotional jeopardy shall be immediately removed from all clinical assignments until such time as the incident can be reviewed by departmental faculty and a decision of resolution can be made.  A student placed on Clinical Suspension will receive a written notice and will be administratively withdrawn from the department.

 

XII.  GUIDELINES FOR PROFESSIONALISM

 

A. PROFESSIONALISM/APPEARANCE

 

To look and conduct oneself in a manner perceived as positive by others.  To create a work environment and work ethic that communicates excellence.

 

Key areas:

Self-presentation

Dress code

Managing emotions and stress

Equipment handling

Work area

Record keeping

Report presentation

 

B. KNOWLEDGE/EXPERTISE

 

To be perceived as knowledgeable and up-to-date in the field of medical imaging and in the services offered by the institution.

 

Key areas:

Keep up-to-date in the field

Knowledge of the services offered

Ability to describe efforts to others

Established reputation

Professional memberships

Advanced certifications

Equipment knowledge

Networking with others

 

C.  COMMUNICATION/PROJECTION

 

To communicate positively with patients, visitors, physicians, and staff, and to project, through communication, professionalism, knowledge, and high standards.

 

Key areas:

Be prepared

Show energy and enthusiasm

Be positive

Know what you are talking about

Be confident

Speak up

Be friendly

Possess integrity

Conform to a code of ethics

Respect others

Use effective delivery and tonal quality

 

D. CUSTOMER FOCUS

 

To understand the service customer’s needs and wants to the degree they expect.

 

Key areas:

Communication of a positive image

Know what your customers want

Don’t just satisfy - delight the customer

Be a key link in the patient care effort

Market your profession

Think in terms of service excellence

Educate others about your profession

 

E. STANDARDS

 

To set and adhere to high work standards that are noticed and regarded positively by others.

 

Key areas:

Ownership of work and accountability

Goal and purpose orientation

High levels of perfection

Know standards

Pride in one’s work and profession

 

 

F. PATIENT RELATIONS

 

To have a keen sense of patient feelings and needs and to be perceived by patients and others as a knowledgeable, understanding, helpful, and caring resource.

 

Key areas:

Understand what the patient is going through

Exhibit sensitivity and a caring attitude

Ensure that patients can understand you

Make patients feel special

 

 

UAMS-DMS Curriculum:

In order to maintain high academic standards in a dynamic profession like Diagnostic Sonography, the curriculum must be constantly evaluated and updated.    The following page shows the courses that are currently required for UAMS-DMS graduation.   These may change depending upon evaluation by the faculty, but only with notice to the students.

 

Current UAMS-DMS  curriculum:

TIME LINE for the UAMS DMS Program -- Traditional Clinical Education

Bachelor of Science in DMS (2 + 2 years) --   ABD & OB/GYN plus Echocardiography OR Vascular

Total SC & Contact Hrs

 Advanced Certificate in DMS (18 months) -- ABD & OB/GYN

AC & BS DMS overlap

Bachelor of Science in DMS

 

 

 

Summer(1)

Fall(2)

Spring(3)

Summer(4)

Fall(5)

Spring(6)

AC

BS

Didactic Courses

 

DMS Sectional Anatomy (DMS3211)

DMS Conference (DMS4242)

 

Sonographic Survey (DMS5323) Required for AC only , elective for Degree Completion.

CardiovasPathoPhys (DMS4251)

 

 

 

Intro.Physics (DMS3312)

Adv.Physics (DMS3222)

 

Adv.OB Genetics & Path (DMS4241)

Current Issues in HealthCare (DMS4261)

 

 

 

Abd (DMS3313)

 OB(DMS3321)

Intro. Cardiac & Vas (DMS4342)

Doppler & Adv. Hemodynamics (DMS4352)

Adv. Vas (DMS4363) or Adv.Cardiac (DMS4364)

 

 

Basic Patient Care -- Bachelor Degree only

Gyn (DMS3221)

  

 

Intermediate Vas.DMS4353 OR Intermediate Cardiac DMS4354

 

 

 

Credit Hrs

3

10

7

3

8

7

28

38

Contact Hrs

45

150

105

45

120

105

465

570

Methods of delivery

WebCT, CD + Text

Interactive Video Lectures

Interactive Video Lectures

WebCT

WebCT

WebCT

 

 

Clinical Education

 

 

Clinical Education

Clinical Education

Clinical I - DMS3514

Clinical II - DMS3824

Clinical III - DMS3541

Clinical IV - DMS4843

Clinical V - DMS4854

 

 

Credit Hrs

5

8

5

8

8

26

34

Contact Hrs

375

600

375

600

600

1950

2550

Clinical Rotations

3

2

2

2

2

9

11

 

 

 

 

 

Total Semester Credits and Contact Hours

AC SC hours

54

 

 

Distance Education via Interactive Video

 

 

AC Contact hours

2415

 

 

 

 

 

 

BS SC hours

 

72

 

Distance Education via WebCT

 

 

BS Contact hours

 

3120

 

11.4.10 Pregnant Employees Working with Ioninzing Radiation 

UAMS ADMINISTRATIVE GUIDE

NUMBER: 11.4.10

DATE: 04/05/96

REVISION: 01/18/02

     

SECTION:CAMPUS OPERATIONS

      AREA:GENERAL AND OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY

      SUBJECT:PREGNANT EMPLOYEES WORKING WITH IONIZING RADIATION

 

PURPOSE

 

This policy concerns employees who become pregnant who, in the course of their

duties, are occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation (X-rays, gamma rays, or

radioactive materials).

 

The purpose of this policy is (1) to provide information, training, and options

to employees so that they can make informed decisions in the best interest of

themselves and their fetuses; and (2) to provide a mechanism whereby UAMS can

manage or implement appropriate safety practices. No employee shall be

discharged, transferred, or otherwise have her employment affected without her

agreement solely because she is pregnant. On the other hand, employees can be

required to perform the essential functions of their positions as a condition of

continuing their positions.

 

PROCEDURE

 

This policy shall be invoked when employees in one of the following categories  become aware of their pregnancy:

 

Any employee who receives (as demonstrated by film badge reports), or is   likely to receive (as determined by the Radiation Safety Officer's (RSO)   evaluation of duties) a radiation dose in excess of 50 millirems per month,   averaged over a nine month period. Persons engaged in the following activities may be "at risk" as defined in

(a) above: Physicians who conduct radiological procedures (radiologists, nuclear  medicine physicians, cardiologists, orthopedists, etc.) Nurses who assist during radiological procedures or work in areas where  these are performed frequently (O.R., ICU, nursery, etc.) Paramedical personnel (radiology, nuclear medicine, dentistry, radiation  therapy, etc.) Students who are in training in any of the above areas Laboratory personnel working with radioactive materials or X-ray  generators

 

Employees do not have to notify anyone of their pregnancy. However, an employee who decides to notify the hospital of her pregnancy or intended pregnancy has the following responsibilities:   Notify her immediate supervisor OR the Radiation Safety Officer of her   pregnancy.   Assist her supervisor and the RSO in evaluating the level of risk to a fetus   from her particular working conditions and in evaluation the reasonableness   of modifications to her working conditions to reduce risk. She shall sign a Female Radiation Exposure Declaration Form acknowledging that she has   officially notified her supervisor of her pregnancy and knows the possible   risks to her fetus from ionizing radiation exposure.  Notify her supervisor of any changes in her work or any problems in her   pregnancy that may relate to exposure to radiation. Employee's options:  Resign from employment.  Continue in employment in her current position.  If the supervisor offers the employee an alternative position with less radiation risk, she may accept such position.  Take a leave of absence for a period of time not exceeding the duration of the pregnancy.

 

 Supervisor's responsibilities:  Contact the RSO and schedule a conference with the employee.  Implement any modifications in working conditions that the supervisor deems appropriate.  Establish the duration and conditions of any leave of absence or transfer to another position allowed under other provisions of this policy.  Provide the employee with information furnished by the Radiation Safety   Officer regarding the nature of potential radiation injury associated with in utero radiation exposure and the regulatory limits established by the National Council on Radiation Protection.

 

 Radiation Safety Officer's responsibilities:  Develop information to be furnished to employees regarding the nature of potential radiation injury associated with in utero radiation exposure and the regulatory limits established by the National Council on Radiation Protection. (This information is provided on pages 4-6 of this policy.)  Advise the supervisor regarding the nature, the magnitude, and appropriate preventive measures associated with the employee's exposure to ionizing radiation.  Provide dosimeters and keep the supervisor and employee advised of exposure readings.

 

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT OF TRAINING:

FEMALE RADIATION EXPOSURE DECLARATION

 

I understand that UAMS is obliged by applicable law to take the position that  protection of the health of the embryo/fetus is the immediate and direct  responsibility of the prospective parent(s). While the medical profession and  the UAMS can support the parent(s) in the exercise of this responsibility, the  UAMS cannot assume it for the parent(s) without, according to the courts,  simultaneously infringing upon individuals' rights. I also understand that  policies which, as a rule, inhibit a woman's activities in the workplace on the  basis of fetal protection concerns, are improper under the law of the United  States, unless a woman voluntarily requests more protective dose limits be  applied to her or in cases in which sex or pregnancy actually interferes with  the employee's ability to perform the job.

 

I have received training from UAMS concerning the radiological hazards of  employment. I have also received training regarding the effects of radiation on  an embryo/fetus (such as mental retardation and birth size, childhood cancer,  radiation-induced genetic effects, and the radio-sensitivity of the  embryo/fetus.)

 

I have had opportunity to ask questions concerning all aspects of the  presentation.

 

I understand that the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurement  has recommended a separate dose limit of 500 mrem (not to exceed 50 mrem/month)  to the embryo/fetus from occupational exposure of the expectant mother for the  term of the pregnancy. I understand that if I become pregnant, I have the option  to formally choose to be considered a Declared Pregnant Female. If I do not  formally declare my pregnancy, my radiation dose limits will continue to be the  same as they were before I became pregnant (annual limit of 5000 mrem).

 

I understand that I may be excluded from certain jobs or tasks that would  require high radiation exposure if I choose to be a Declared Pregnant Female. I  understand that these declarations and lower limits, however are strictly  voluntary and will be implemented by UAMS only upon request. I understand that I  may change my declaration at any time by notifying my supervisor and signing a  new declaration form.

 

Based on the above information, I believe I adequately understand the risks of  radiation related to employment and the choices available to me.

 

CHOOSE ONE:

 

Declared Pregnant Female. I currently am pregnant, and I voluntarily elect to choose the lower dose limit for the unborn child of 500 mrem for the gestation period, not to exceed 50 mrem per month.

 

YES                                        NO                          If YES, estimated date of Delivery ________________________________

 

Employee's Name (please print) :  _________________________________________Date:___________________

 

Employee's Social Security No.:  ________________________________________________________________

 

Employee's Signature:  ________________________________________________________________________

 

Supervisor's Name __________________________________________________________________________

 

 

 

 

UNIVERSITY OF ARKANSAS FOR MEDICAL SCIENCES

INFORMATION FOR FEMALE EMPLOYEES & STUDENTS

UNDER 50 YEARS OF AGE

 

Possible Health Risks to Children of Women Exposed to Radiation During  Pregnancy:

 

Some recent studies have shown that the risk of leukemia and other cancers in  children increases if the mother is exposed to a significant amount of radiation  during pregnancy. According to a report by the National Academy of Sciences, the  incidence of leukemia among children under 10 years of age in the United States  could rise from 3.7 cases in 10,000 children to 5.6 cases in 10,000 children, if  the children were exposed to 1,000 mrem of radiation before birth (a "mrem" is a  measure of radiation). The Academy has also estimated that an equal number of  scientific studies have shown a much smaller effect from radiation. The  University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences wants women employees to be aware of  any possible risk so that the women can take steps they think appropriate to  protect their offspring.

 

As an employee, you may be exposed to more radiation than the general public.  However, the Arkansas State Health Department has established a basic exposure  limit for occupationally exposed adults of 5,000 mrem per year. No clinical  evidence of harm would be expected in an adult working within these levels for a  lifetime. Because the risks of undesirable effects may be greater for young  people, persons under 18 years of age are permitted to be exposed to only 10  percent of the adult occupational limits. (This lower limit is also applied to  members of the general public.)

 

The scientific organization called the National Council of Radiation Protection  and Measurements (NCRP) has recommended that because unborn babies may be more  sensitive to radiation than adults, their radiation dose as a result of  occupational exposure of the mother should not exceed 500 mrem. Other scientific  groups, including the International Commission on Radiation Protection, have  also stressed the need to keep radiation doses to unborn children as low as  practicable.

 

Thus it is the responsibility of your employer to take all practicable steps to  reduce your radiation exposure. Then it is your responsibility to decide whether  the exposure you are receiving is sufficiently low to protect your unborn child.  The advice of your employer's health physicist or radiation protection officer  should be obtained to determine whether radiation levels in your working areas  are high enough that a baby could receive 500 mrem or more before birth. If so,  the alternatives that you might want to consider are:    If you are now pregnant or expect to be soon, you could decide not to accept    or continue assignments in these areas.    You could reduce your exposure, where possible, by decreasing the amount of    time you spend in the radiation area, increasing your distance from the    radiation source, and use shielding.    If you do become pregnant, you could ask your employer to reassign you to    areas involving less exposure to radiation. If this is not possible, you might    consider leaving your job. If you decide to take such steps, do so without    delay. The unborn child is most sensitive to radiation during the first three    months of your pregnancy.   You could delay having children until you are no longer working in an area    where the radiation dose to your unborn baby could exceed 500 mrem.     You may also, of course, choose to:   Continue working in the higher radiation areas, but with full awareness that    you are doing so at some small increased risk for your unborn child.

 

The following facts should be noted to help you make a decision:   The first three months of pregnancy are the most important, so you should make    your decision quickly.   At the present occupational exposure limit, the actual risk to the unborn baby    is small, but experts disagree in the exact amount of risk.   There is no need to be concerned about sterility or loss of your ability to    bear children. The radiation dose required to produce such effects is more    than 100 times larger than the dose limits for adults.   Even if you work in an area where you receive only 500 mrem per three-month    period, in nine months you could receive 1,500 mrem, which exceeds the    full-term limit suggested by the NCRP. Therefore, if you decide to restrict    your unborn baby's exposure as recommended by the NCRP, be aware that the 500    mrem limit applies to the full nine-month pregnancy.

 

The remainder of this document contains a brief explanation of radiation and its  effects on humans. As you will see, some radiation is present everywhere, and  the levels of radiation most employees of UAMS receive are not much larger than  these natural levels. Because the radiation levels in the area where you will be  working are required by law to be kept quite low, there is not considered to be  significant health risk to individual adult employees.

 

  

DISCUSSION OF RADIATION

 

The amount of radiation a person receives is called the "dose" and is measured  in "mrems." The average person in the United States gets a dose of 1,000 mrem  from natural sources (other than radon) every 12 years. The dose from natural  radiation is higher in some states, such as Colorado, Wyoming, and South Dakota,  primarily because of cosmic radiation. In these states the average person gets  1,000 mrem every eight years.

 

Natural background radiation levels are also much higher in certain local areas.  A dose of 1,000 mrem may be received in some areas on the beach at Quarapari,  Brazil, in only about nine days, and some people in Kerala, India, get a dose of  1,000 mrem every five months.

 

Many people receive additional radiation for medical reasons. The annual  radiation dose averaged over the U.S. population from diagnostic X-rays is 40  mrem per year. The average dose from one chest X-ray is 10-20 mrem. Radiation can also be received from natural sources such as rock or brick  structures, from consumer products such as television and glow-in-the-dark  watches, and from air travel. The possible annual dose from working eight hours  a day near a granite wall at the Redcap Stand in Grand Central Station, New York  City, is 200 mrem, and the average annual dose in the United States from TV,  consumer products, and air travel is 2.6 mrem.

 

Radiation, like many things, can be harmful. A large dose to the whole body  (such as 600,000 mrem in one day) would probably cause death in about 30 days,  but such large doses result only from rare accidents. Control of exposure to  radiation is based on the assumption that any exposure, no matter how small,  involves some risk. The occupational exposure limits are set so low, however,  that medical evidence gathered over the past 50 years indicates no clinically  observable injuries to individuals due to radiation exposures when the  established radiation limits are not exceeded. Thus the risk to individuals at  the occupational exposure levels is considered to be very low. However, it is  impossible to say that the risk is zero. To decrease the risk still further,  licensees are expected to keep actual exposures as far below the limits as  practicable.

 

The current exposure limits for people working with radiation have been  developed and carefully reviewed by nationally and internationally recognized  groups of scientists. It must be remembered that these limits are for adults.  Special consideration is appropriate when the person being exposed is, or may  be, an expectant mother, because the exposure of an unborn child may also be  involved.

 

PRENATAL IRRADIATION

 

The prediction that an unborn child would be more sensitive to radiation than an  adult is supported by observations for relatively large doses. Large doses  delivered before birth alters both physical development and behavior in  experimentally exposed animals. A report of the National Academy of Sciences  states that short-term doses in the range of 10,000-20,000 mrem cause subtle  changes in the nerve cells of unborn and infant rats. The report also states,  however, that no radiation-induced changes in development have been demonstrated  to result in experimental animals from doses up to about 1,000 mrem per day  extended over a large part of the period before birth.

 

The National Academy of Sciences also noted that doses of 25,000-50,000 mrem to  a pregnant human may cause growth disturbances in her offspring. Such doses  substantially exceed, of course, the maximum permissible occupational exposure  limits. 

 

Department of Imaging and Radiation Sciences

Division of Diagnostic Medical Sonography

4301 West Markham Street, # 563  •  Little Rock, Arkansas 72205

Telephone: (501) 686-6510  •  Fax: (501) 686-6513  •   DuBoseTerryJ@UAMS.edu