care providers should be immunized against the hepatitis B virus as
well as childhood diseases.
an inflammation of the liver. There are several types but the
greatest risk to health care workers is Hepatitis B (HBV). 200-300
health care workers contract hepatitis each year. It can be
transmitted by contact with infected blood or blood products. It is
not transmitted by casual contact.
80% of all Hepatitis B infections are undiagnosed because they never
have symptoms. The symptoms of acute infections include fatigue,
mild fever, muscle and joint aches, nausea, vomiting, abdominal
pain, diarrhea and jaundice. More severe infections can be fatal.
B vaccine has been avai1able since 1982.It is considered safe and
effective and is recommended for the prevention of HBV infection by
the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). At this time,
no booster is recommended.
Immunodeficiency Virus (1-11V) is the agent, which initiates the
first stage of a complex disease known as Acquired Immune Deficiency
Syndrome (AIDS). This disease is another major concern of health
care workers. At this point a vaccine has not been developed to
prevent the disease. This fact places tremendous stress on prudent
infection control practices to prevent cross-contamination.
HIV is a
bloodborne and sexually transmitted disease in which a virus invades
the body and damages the immune system. This allows other infectious
agents to invade the body and cause other opportunistic diseases. At
this time there is no cure for the AIDS virus and it is fatal.
B, HIV is spread through body fluids. For the health care worker,
any blood or blood contaminated item could transmit the disease. FRV
is not transmitted by casual contact.
the disease may include enlarged lymph nodes, oral fungal
infections, fatigue, weight loss, flu like symptoms, and problems
with the immune system; however, some people in the early stages may
have no symptoms. 95% of all AIDS patients have head, neck and oral
To be as
protected as possible, immunizations for diseases that are available
should be taken. Universal infection control procedures should be
routinely practiced. In case of an accident involving a sharp or
mucous membrane, refer to the "Needlestick Protocol" in this manual.
A declination form for HBV is also available in this section . All
employees who have contact with blood or other potentially
infectious materials in this facility will be offered the hepatitis
vaccine after training. Any new employee will be offered the vaccine
within 10 days of assignment. If the employee refuses the vaccine, a
declination will be signed and placed in the employee’s file. A list
of employees and their job description is found in the "Training
Log" section of this manual.